Monday, 15 November 2010

The Fantasy flight

The Fantasy flight is ‘Finally out in Space’

Do you want to give a ride!! on you go...

Virgin galactic the first airline for a space travel, virgin galactic engineers spent a lot of work for designing such a best aircraft took them a few decades. They initially failed in few tests

But ‘From the mid 1990's, Virgin looked at many plans for potential space launch vehicles. All were rejected, primarily on the basis that they were fundamentally unsafe by design.’(Virgin galactic –The North star).

Later in 2002 new design plans have been developed Burt Rutan's, plans for Spaceship One made them to utilize many more 1000 times more safer than any other spaceship in the world, which then the civilization transformed to a new era of space travel.

'SPACESHIP 2 (Ref:Virgin galactic)

Spaceship two is a rocket powered space plane launches horizontally from an aircraft at altitude app 50,000ft rather than ground launch (i.e.) vertically, because of dangers involved in it like the controllability and burning the fuel for a rocket engine involves in a lot of fuel quantities like solid oxygen (Propellants) which affects the mass of the vehicle. And because a rocket has to operate in the very thin upper atmosphere, where oxygen for fuel combustion is scarce, in space there is none oxygen so it has to carry its own oxidizer. There are two main types of rocket propulsion: liquid engines and solid motors.

Liquid engines:

Liquid engines mixes two liquids(liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) and ignite them to produce thrust. The main advantage of the liquid engines is they provide very high efficiencies and can be shutdown early if necessary; they are expensive and complex to build.

Solid motors:

These are like fireworks. A solid mixture of fuel and oxidiser and once you burn it then off you go.

The advantage is that it’s simple and the disadvantage is once you lit the fire, they can’t be stopped, they burn until all the propellant is used up.

Hybrid motor:

Hybrid motors offer both simplicity and safety. This is the type of motor that SpaceShipTwo will employ and that was used by SpaceShip1. Main advantage of this motor is that the pilots will be able to shut down the SpaceShip2 rocket motor at any time during its operation and glide safely back to the runway. And the oxidiser used is Nitrous and fuel is a rubber mixture.

The spacecraft must fly through the lower and denser regions of the atmosphere, since the rocket’s thrust when released would be so high, so the spacecraft velocity also must alsobe so high to work efficiently. (To match both velocities)

One of Milestone is Wing feathering for re-entry.

The technically challenging and dangerous thing is Burt Rutan’s was made to find the failsafe solution, which he found was wing feathering for re-entry was the humble shuttle cock which relies on aerodynamic design and laws of physics.

How does it work!!

When the spaceship is out of the atmosphere, the entire tail plane of the spaceship can be rotated up to 65degrees.

This feathered configuration is an automatic control of the altitude and with the fuselage parallel to the horizontal; this creates high drag and the spaceship descends to the upper regions of the atmosphere, the feather configuration is also highly stable, effectively giving the pilot a hands-free re-entry.

Composite materials are used for more strength and safety, especially Carbon fibre composite is a marvellous material; four times the strength of steel and a quarter of its weight, meaning less energy is required to propel both vehicles.

This is a revolutionary event in the world history, achieving the supreme heights in the Aeronautical and Aerospace industry



Note:This blog post is just for information, and upcomming evolutions and developments in Aerospace and other sciences

Thursday, 25 March 2010



The Theory which has superiority, the theory which is completely unique and different, the theory which has magic in it is STRING THEORY. The possibilities are impossible but STRING THEORY made everything possible.

This theory is of five different types:

Type I

Type IIA

Type IIB

E8*E8 heterotic

SO(32) heterotic

This theory was thought it’s wrong and ended but Edward Witten solved the theory like a puzzle he joined all the five different string theories and made it Unified M-Theory.

What is a STRING?

Matter is composed of atoms and which atoms has protons ,electrons and neutrons and in turn these particles are made up quarks and these quarks are made of STRINGS, this is called String level coming from what we see an object or a matter to its smallest particle. This string vibrates at the size of Planck’s length 10^-35m at particular resonant frequencies.

Observe the below figure you may understand what the level is

The unification of five string theories (three super strings and two heterotic strings) the combination is M-Theory. This theory has 11 dimensions but looks like 10 dimensions in some points in its space of parameters. And also It describes a object called membrane.

This theory mainly has 3 factors which depends on them


2.Nonabelian Guage symmetry



All the five string theories state about the gravity and also the quantum mechanics,standard quantum field theory makes gravity impossible.

Nonabelian guage symmetry:

In this theory the guage fields also carry the charges

This is the second prediction Nonabelian gauge symmetry measurably small corrections proportional to α’

Super symmetry:

It states that every fundamental particle must have a shadow force carrier particle and every force carrier must have a matter particle .The relation between the shadow force carrier particle and matter particle is called super symmetry.

to be Continued.....


Sunday, 14 March 2010


Time Travel, some people just think it just a science fiction ,time travel wow!!! traveling into the future past sounds very interesting ,yes there is a physics behind this as Einstein's two theories-General theory of relativity and special theory of relativity,these include black holes ,worm hole,cosmic holes ,extra-dimensions and many more.He said that worm holes are like a tube or a shortcut connecting to space and time,space and time are curved as shown in figures,it's a shortcut.
There are many laws supporting time travel,M-THEORY(String theory) particle physics-the large hadron collider(CERN) are trying to find out the extra dimensions by colliding the protons nearly 99.99% speed of light.

One Physicist Dr.Ronald mallet ,as Einstein said that space and time are curved ,Dr. Mallet is trying to bend the space time using the ring laser he started few years ago may be he might successfully complete it by facing the paradoxes,like grand father paradox and other but still there is a way out says Dr Mallet .

This Time Travel theory which is interlinked to all parts of physics like Astronomy,cosmology ,Quantum mechanics, Astrophysics,Particle physics, Technology and others.

Let us wait few more years for the changes in physics

Anvesh Kadimi